Basic studies of ductile failure processes and implications for fracture prediction

ABSTRACT: Fracture of ductile materials has frequently been observed to result from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microscopic voids. Experimental and analytical studies have shown that both the stress constraint factor and the effective plastic strain playa significant role in the ductile failure process. Experimental results also suggest that these two parameters are not independent of each other at failure initiation. In this study, a methodology for characterizing the effect of stress constraint Am (which is defined to be the ratio of the mean stress and the effective stress Am = (1 m/ (1 e) on ductile failure is proposed. This methodology is based on experimental evidence that shows the effective plastic strain at failure initiation has a one-to-one relationship with stress constraint. Numerical analyses based on plane strain and three-dimensional unit-cell models have been carried out to investigate failure initiation of the unit cell under different constraint conditions. Results from the numerical studies indicate (a) for each void volume fraction, there exists a local failure locus in terms of mesoscopic quantities, (1 m and (1 e, that adequately predict incipient local micro-void link-up, (b) the results are fully consistent with a failure criterion that maximizes mesoscopic effective stress for a constant level of stress constraint Am, (c) for high to moderate constraint Am' the link-up envelope values for (1 m and (1 e are consistent with limit load conditions where the critical principal stress (1le corresponds to the maximum principal stress in the loading history and (d) for low constraint, the link-up envelope values for (1 m and (1 e correspond to link-up conditions having high levels of plastic strain and a principal stress (11 that is lower than the maximum value for this loading history. Thus, the results suggest that a two-parameter ductile fracture criterion is plausible, such as critical crack opening displacement (COD) and stress constraint Am, for predicting the process of stable tearing in materials undergoing ductile void growth during the fracture process.

Three-dimensional periodic array of woids and unit cell material model. Envelope fucntions (0) for each f 0.
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